There are several process choices in the applications section. You can select as many processes as you require. For example, a two-bed deionizer is often followed by a mixed bed deionizer, but not in all cases. You may want to explore whether or not a dealkalizer, a desilicizer, or a softener would be an appropriate process approach. If they are selected, we will provide the projection reports for them.
IMPORTANT - Each influent water chemistry should be submitted on a separate FORM 300. The exception to this is the mixed bed deionizer. The mixed bed deionizer projection is based on the two bed deionizer effluent criteria, unless you provide a different influent analysis.
The cations and anions sections each has two input columns, so that you can enter the concentration of the various ions, either as themselves (as the ION) using milligrams per liter (mg/L), which is the same as parts per million, (PPM) or as their calcium carbonate (as CaCO3) equivalent. Conversion factors are provided so that you can easily convert from the "as the ION" to "as CaCO3". Total cations as CaCO3 should equal total anions as CaCO3. It is not necessary to fill in all of the items. Any items that are left blank will be assumed to be zero. However, if you know that a substance is present, but don't have the analysis, enter a question mark in its box, and we will attempt to estimate the value.
The third section of the influent water chemistry includes carbon dioxide and silica, which both exist as un-ionized acids. Therefore, they don't have corresponding cations. The conductivity should be entered as micromhos (mmho), which is the same as µ/cm. Generally, the total cation or anion content as CaCO3 is equivalent to the conductivity in micromhos divided by 2.5. Enter the untreated inlet water temperature and circle degrees F, (°F) or degrees C (°C).
The conductivity, TDS, sodium and silica should all be entered as the ION. You should provide both the average and the maximum allowable values. The maximum allowable value effects the operating capacity. It tells us when the resin bed has to be taken out of service and how much capacity needs to be sacrificed during the post regenerant rinse. If no value is entered, a default value will be used.
Regeneration information is broken into two areas. Cation regenerant and anion regenerant. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are alternate selections for softeners. Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are alternate selections for 2 bed or mixed bed deionizer and cation dealkalizer. Cocurrent or counter current regeneration direction should be selected, or select "look at both" and ratings for each will be provided.
Under anion regenerant, sodium chloride or sodium chloride/NaOH can be selected for regenerating dealkalizers or organic removal systems. Sodium chloride is the only regenerant available for the nitrate removal systems.
Sodium hydroxide is used for 2 bed and mixed bed deionizers and desilicizers. In these applications, the temperature of the caustic has an impact on silica leakage and can be selected as either unheated, 95 or 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The regeneration process can be cocurrent or countercurrent. If you want a projection done for both methods, select look at both.
Bed Depth - It is usually not necessary to fill out this section. Please note that the default bed depth values are different for countercurrent and cocurrent applications. Higher bed depths offer greater economy and therefore are sometimes specified as part of the design criteria. You can enter your preferred bed depth in feet or meters. Space is provided for either.
Design Factor - This is the safety factor. It is the percentage of the potential performance capability of the resin that you want to use for the design of the system. Values of 65 to 90% are typically used. The design factor accounts for distribution losses, less than perfect resin utilization due to system geometry, seasonal changes in water chemistry and temperature etc. You can put in any number from zero to 100%. If no value is inputted, the system will use 100% as the default value. The design factor used is included in the projection reports.